Join Forests for Climate Resilience and Forest Defenders for a gathering of #Forest Folk, Saturday in Portland, Oregon. The night will feature music, forest updates and movement news!
Crackling news from Catalonia emerged this week as the supreme court of Spain decided on the fate of those democratically elected leaders. Read on for how Catalonians are raising awareness for the freedom of their Political Prisoners.
[TIL'-i-kum] or [TIL'-LI-kum] — noun.
Meaning: Person; people; relative; relation; kin; friend; ally; associate; folk; tribe; nation; population;
Origin: Chinook tilikhum people
Commonly spelt “tillicum”, and sometimes pluralized in the english style as ‘tillikums”, the word means means “person” or “people,” and often has the connotation of a friend or relative, but has also come to signify a friend or ally. It usually means those who are not a “tyee” (chief), but rather common people, and can refer to any people, and can be used to signify one’s social group, band, tribe, or even nation.
It can be used to describe one’s "ahnkuttie tillikums" (ancestors), “cultus tilikum” (ordinary people; insignificant people; nobodies), or just "konaway tillikum" (everyone, everybody), be it "nesika tillikums" (our people) or "yaka tillikum" (their people).
“Klahowya tillikum” (Hello, people; greetings, my friends/family) is a standard greeting in Chinook Wawa, and serves as a good way to address "huloima tillikum" (strangers, different people from our people) which one might encounter in a large "hiyu tillikum" (a crowd; a gathering). And of course celebrating a "ahnkuttie tillikum yiem wawa" (tradition) with friends and family also makes for a good time.
Spelled either as tillicum or tillikum, it is a common place name in Cascadia; Tillicum Centre is a shopping mall along Tillicum Road in Victoria, BC, and a Tillicum Street in both Seattle and Vancouver. Tilikum Crossing is a bridge in Portland, Oregon, while Tillicum station is a planned commuter rail station in Lakewood, WA. Tillicum Village on Blake Island, accessible from Seattle by ferry, offers a Cascadian First Nation’s equivalent of a luau, complete with a stage show, for the hungry tourist. Blake Island is believed to be the birthplace of Chief Si'ahl.
[ty-EE' ] or [tahy-EE] — Noun, Adjective.
Origin: Nuu-chah-nulth ta-yi "elder", "brother", "senior"; allegedly resembles Inuktitut toyom "chief"
Meaning: A chief; leader; a superior; a boss; an officer; a master; a gentleman; a foreman; a manager; an important person; superior; best; important
Occasionally spelled tyhee in some place names, and as tayi in older publications, tyee is one of the most commonly used and wide-spread words in Chinook Wawa. Originally used to only describe a chief, it would later be applied to any anyone or anything in a leadership position, as seen in “tyee lamel” (boss mule), “klootchman tyee” (a matron), or "Tyee kopa Washington" (the president of the United States). The title of “Sagalie Tyee” is usually translated as "Great Spirit" or "God" but literally means "chief above".
The title of “hyas tyee” (Great Chief, King) was traditionally used by Maquinna and Wickanninish, the two principal chiefs of the Nuu-chah-nulth First Nation at the time explorers Vancouver and Bodega y Quadra made contact.This was also the title of the famous chiefs Khatsahlahno (of the Squamish) and Cumshewa (of the Haida), etc. and also of the British king or local governor. In later years, it could also mean a high company or government official or chief military officer. Today the title of “hyas tyee” could be applied to a senator, a longtime MP or MLA, or a business magnate with a strong local powerbase, long-time connections, and wealth from and because of the area.
The title “Hyas Klootchman Tyee” (Great Woman Ruler) translates roughly to "Her Majesty", and was used to refer to Queen Victoria in public proclamations during her reign. In theory, this title also applies to Queen Elizabeth II but it is no longer used by the BC government.
Occasionally it could be used as an adjective, as seen in "kahkwa tyee" (kingly; like a king), or "tyee salmon" (king salmon), a term still used today in the Campbell River-Johnstone Strait region to refer to a large spring Chinook salmon of extraordinary size, usually anything weighing more than 13.5 kg (29.76 lbs).
Tyee is an extremely common name for places and businesses, with the spelling Tyhee occasionally showing up in Idaho and some parts of British Columbia. Tyee Drive is located on Point Roberts, while there is a Tyee Court in Vancouver, BC and a Tyee Road in Victoria, BC. Tyhee Elementary School is located in Bannock, ID, while Tyee Middle School and Tyee High School are located in Washington. The Tyee Restaurant and Motel, established in 1926, is located in Coupeville, WA, while Oregon has Tyee Camp, along with Tyee Wine Cellars and Tyee Lodge, just to name a few.
There is a popular BC news site named The Tyee, and beginning in 1900, Tyee was also the title of the University of Washington Yearbook.
[ko'-SHO] or [KU'-shu] — noun.
Meaning: Hog; pig; swine; pork; ham; bacon.
Origin: French, le cochon, ‘pig’
Sometimes rendered as gosho, legosho, or lecosho in older sources, “cosho” (with the accent on second syllable) was a French loanword used to mean pig or swine, but by context can be said to refer to the meat of the animal, though if one wanted to specify they could say "cosho itlwillie" (hog meat; pork). Variants included "klootchman cosho" (sow pig), “tenas cosho” (piglet), and "cosho glease" (lard).
The word was also use in “siwash cosho” (aboriginal pig) used to refer to the meat of a seal, being somewhat similar in appearance, if not in taste, to that of swine, and was as much a staple of coastal First Nation life as pork was to the British or the Americans. It's worth noting that this expression was purely a jargon creation, and an equally prevalent word used throughout the region was “olehiyu” (seal), which was of Chinookan origin.
Taste the Region and Explore Food Connections at the Food and Cider Festival, Slow Food Summit, and Cascadian Luau during this all day event brought to you by Slow Food Cascadia. Join us as we build a just, craft, regenerative food movement in the Cascadia region, and raise funds to support farm-to-food bank program.
[de-LATEY'] or [de-LEYT'] — adjective, adverb.
Meaning: Physically straight, direct, true, truly, exact, definite, definitely, sincere, sincerely, sure, authentic; accurate; without equivocation; without hesitation.
Origin: Either a corruption of English, straight; or Norman French drette > standard French droite ‘right’, both the directional and legal senses.
Often used to mean "very" or "truly", delate makes a statement positive and removes any element of doubt; "Delate nika wawa" (I am speaking the truth) or "delate kwinnum cole ahnkuttie" (exactly five years ago) illustrate that anything ‘delate” is the genuine article.
It can emphasize an affirmative, such as in “delate klosheh” (very good; right on), "okoke delate" (that is right; it is correct), “nawitka, delate kloshe” (yes, perfect), and "delate hyas kloshe" (majestic; magnificent; awe-inspiring), or can also emphasize a negation, such as "wake delate" (not right; imperfect).
It can be used in the directional sense, such as "klatawa delate" (to go straight ahead), or when describing size, as seen in "delate hyas" (very big indeed; enormous; immense). It can emphasize an exact time, such as "delate tenas sun" (dawn; daybreak), or state that in a legal sense that one is "delate yaka illahee" (a native of a country).
And of course all important baking instructions, ranging from “delate tenas" (just a little) to "delate pahtl" (full to the brim; chock full).
It can be used to say "delate nika sick tumtum" (I am very sorry), or tell someone that something is “delate ticky” (really necessary). If one is "delate yaka kumtuks" (an expert) and can "delate kumtuks" (know for a certainty; sure, to prove) "delate wawa" (the truth; a promise; a fact), then it is easy to "wawa delate" (speak the truth; speak correctly).
In a victory for the Cascadia Major League Soccer supporter groups, the Major League Soccer federation has rescinded a prohibition on the use of the anti-fascist Iron Front symbol as they work with fans to rewrite their code of conduct. The symbol was recently banned, with the league trying to claim that it violated it’s code of conduct because it was a ‘political statement’. Supporter groups have countered that being pro-human rights, as well as being tolerant and inclusive of all individuals, regardless of their race, religion or skin color, is hardly political.
[HY'-ak] — adverb.
Meaning: Swift; fast; quick; hurry; make haste
Origin: Chinook ai-ak
Used to denote speed, urgency, or even frequency, as seen in “hyak hyak” (so often) or “hyak kilapi” (return quickly), and could even be used as an imperative simply meaning “Hurry!” or “Hurry up!”
The word is also used for the name of the Hyack Festival held on Victoria Day weekend in New Westminster, BC, distinguished by the Ancient and Honourable Hyack Anvil Battery Salute, a tradition created by The New Westminster Fire Department — known as “The Hyacks" — in 1870 as a surrogate for the royal 21-gun salute usually performed on the Queen's Birthday. With no cannons available in the early colony, the Fire Department improvised by placing gunpowder between two anvils, the top one upturned, and igniting the charge from a safe distance, hurling the upper anvil into the air.
This celebration continues today as an important civic tradition, lending the city the distinction of having the longest-running May Day celebration of its type in the British Commonwealth. Within B.C., at least four other communities still celebrate May Day: Port Coquitlam, Ladner in Delta (whose May Day Festival began in 1896), Bradner in Abbotsford, and The Sunshine Coast's Pender Harbour.
There did exist an interesting regional variant of Chinook Wawa; in the Fraser Canyon "holaporte" was heard to mean "hurry!". It comes from "all aboard", a cry uttered from many of the steamboats which piloted the Fraser River in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
[chuhk] or [tsuk] — noun.
Meaning: water; liquid; river; stream
Origin: Nuu-chah-nulth chauk, chahak; Chinook, tltsuk; Clatsop, tl'chukw, fresh water
Used to refer to any fluid or body of water, such as "cooley chuck" (river), “tenaschuck” (lake; pond), "sagalie chuck" (holy water; magical potion; hot spring), and "cultus chuck" (alkali water; poison).
Perhaps the most widely used variant was "skookumchuck" (whitewater rapids), a compound word literally meaning "strong water" that is found in many place names throughout Cascadia.
There was also "saltchuck", which referred to salt water or the ocean as a whole. The word was also used as part of a number of related marine descriptors, such as "solleks chuck" (a rough sea), “chuck chako” (incoming tide), “chuck kilapi” (outgoing tide), "saghilli chuck" (high tide) and "keekwillie chuck" (low tide).
The Cascadia Seaweed Corporation and First Nation owned Nuu-cha-nulth Seafood are revolutionizing the plant based food industry by becoming the worlds largest kelp & seaweed based farming & harvesting company.
[TEN'-as] — adjective. [ten'-AS] or [dun'-US] — noun.
Meaning: Small; few; little; lesser; weak; young; a child; a youth
Origin: Nuu-chah-nulth tanassie; Toquaht tenas, “child”
Opposite of skookum, hyas, and hiyu in differing contexts, tenas often occurs in place names in northern Cascadia, as at Tenass Lake, just north of Pemberton, BC. In the Lower Columbia and Grand Ronde Chinuk-Wawa, the distinction between ten'-as and dun'-us (not GR spellings, just approximations of pronunciations) is between ‘small/little’ and ‘child/young’.
In some usages, “tenas” means ‘child’, as in “mokst nika tenas” (I have two children) and is used to describe youths as either “klootchman tenas” (girl; young woman) or “tenas man” (boy; young man), but these terms could be used in some cases to mean ‘daughter’ and ‘son’ respectively. These titles were also extended to describe a "tenas yaka tenas" (grandchild), like a “tenas yaka tenas klootchman" (granddaughter) or a “tenas yaka tenas man” (grandson). It was also extend to mean the young of any living creature, such as “tenas puss-puss” (kitten).
The word can be used to describe the "hyas tenas" (very small) version of something, as evident in "tenas house" (hut), “tenas labal” (bullet) and “tenas lop” (string; cord), or can denote quantity, as in “tenas hyiu” (a few), "tenas weght" (a little more), or “tenas sitkum” (small half) which is used to describe a quarter or 25% of something. Man, those tickets were amazingly "tenas mahkook" (cheap; inexpensive)! You could say that the discount really caused the price to “chako tenas" (decrease; diminish), though the expresion "mamook tenas" was another way of expressing the same idea.
Geographic features such as a “tenaschuck” (lake; pond) or a “tenas saghalie illahee” (hill), seasons like “tenas waum (spring) and “tenas cole” (autumn), times of day such as “tenas sun” (early; early morning) or “tenas polaklie” (evening), or recent events, like “tenas ahnkuttie” (recently; a little while ago), and “tenas laly kimta” (a little while after).
While pushing a "chik-chik kopa tenas" (baby stroller) through the park, one might engaging in “tenas wawa” (small talk) by discussing weather conditions like a pleasant “tenas wind” (breeze; light wind) or mentioning that "tenas snow chako" (a little snow has come). However, if someone you encounter is “tenas sick” (hung over) they are not likely to be very sociable.
[chee-CHAH'-ko] — noun.
Meaning: Newcomer; stranger; just arrived
Origin: Lower Chinook t'shi ‘straightaway’ + Nuu-chah-nulth chokwaa ‘come!’
A common compound word formed from the Chinook Wawa words “chee” (new; lately) and “chako” (to come; to arrive), it was an primarily used to refer to a non-native person.
While it can mean ‘stranger’ in some circumstances, cheechako can also mean "tenderfoot", meaning one in need of learning about the land, wildlife, weather, and cultures of the region, although this mild derisive context is later and more regional, being associated with the Klondike gold rush in throughout Alaska, the Yukon and northwestern British Columbia.
One historic example of its use comes from Fairbanks hostess Eva McGown, who is quoted: "I never had any children of my own, but as someone once said, I am the mother of all the cheechakoos."
This word is still in local use in Alaska as slang for a newcomer to the state. As a side note, historically any person who survived at least one winter in Alaska was graduated to the title of “sourdough”, meaning they had become humble as they embraced the lessons that land teaches.
[puss'-puss] general, [pish'-pish] Puget Sound — noun.
Meaning: A cat. Also used for cougar, lynx, bobcat, etc.
Origin: English, An informal term of address for a cat. From a common Germanic word for cat, perhaps ultimately imitative of a sound made to get its attention.
While the term for a house cat in ‘standard’ Chinook Wawa was “puss-puss”, occasionally it was shortened to just “pus”, while in some localities along the Puget Sound region it was pronounced “pish-pish”. A young kat was called a “tenas puss-puss” (kitten; kittycat), while "hyas puss-puss" (a cougar; big cat) was used for the mountain lion (Puma concolor couguar), and was even used on the Canadian comedy-drama television series ‘The Beachcombers’. This term could be conceivably used for a lynx or a bobcat, but probably in the context of a large one.
It is worth noting that the St'at'imcets and Nlaka'pamux First Nations of British Columbia used their own word for cougar, “swaawa”.